Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Management Programs Of A Computer - 931 Words

Introduction Operating systems, (â€Å"OS†) are the management programs of a computer. First it is booted into the computer by a boot program, and then it manages all other programs on the computer. These other programs are called applications, and they utilize an operating system by making requests for process service power through an API, or application program interface. Users then interact directly with an operating system through a graphical user interface or command language. History The earliest computers lacked any form of operating system because they were simple mainframes. The machines were primitive and programs were often entered into the system one bit at a time, through many mechanical switches and plug boards. There were no operating systems during the first phase of computer history--from 1940-1955. By the 1950s, punch cards were introduced and made it so switches were not as necessary any more. The IBM 701, from General Motors Research Laboratories, was the first system that implemented an operating system. The systems generally ran one job at a time, which was indicated by whatever was on the punch card. This is called single-stream batch processing. Computers were just exotic experimental equipment, and mainly tested theory. The use plugboards would direct the computer. Without operating systems, there is no overlap between computation, I/O, think time, and response time. The specific goal was to handle tables of numbers. Librarie sShow MoreRelatedWhat s An Operating System? Essay1552 Words   |  7 Pagesoperating system (OS) is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. OS is the software that supports a computer s basic functions, such as scheduling tasks, executing applications, and controlling peripherals. It is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs in computer/computer devices. The users of the computer interact with the system and applicationRead MoreDifference between Application Software and Programming Software1568 Words   |  6 Pagesintangible program that I used in my life- ‘Apps’. My thinking is no difference from anyone else. After I attended the lecture for computer software, then I realized there are two types of software that we are using in our daily life. In my opinion, I think that software is created to help solving problems in different sector and make human’s life easier. What is Software? Software is a term which defines the various types of programs that used to run and operate the computers or computer hardwareRead MoreOperating Systems Is A Key Component Of The Whole Computer Machine Operating System1544 Words   |  7 Pagescomponent of the whole computer machine operating systems are used to run the computer without this the computers will be hopeless the back of he computer is where operating system is the OS of the computer is usually in Rom chip so its stored in there going back to when I said that it’s a crucial part on computer that’s because it enables your computer to have a desktop and also it enables it to run other pieces of software what are called programs so basically it manages your computers hardware and softwareRead MoreWhat Is An Operating System?1020 Words   |  5 Pagesit allows other programs to run it. Operating systems is the structure that allows you to communicate with computer hardware in a communicating way , without an operating system you wouldn’t be able to tell the computer to do anything and it won’t have any instructions to follow. Purpose of an operating system: Operating system controls the hardware and software properties of the system in a computer these properties include things like processer, memory and disk space. Computers must have an operatingRead MoreComputer Science : Memory Management1149 Words   |  5 PagesMemory Management Navid Salehvaziri Virginia International University â€Æ' Abstract Memory management is a field of computer science that involves the act of managing computer memory to use it more efficient. That means how the computer allocate portion of memory to programs at different levels of priority to make faster program execution regard to memory space limitation. There are many techniques that are developed to reach this goal at many levels. This article try to introduce memory management levelsRead MoreEssay on Explain the Purpose of an Operating System1117 Words   |  5 PagesExplain the purpose of an operating system Process Management A multitasking operating system may give the appearance that a lot of processes are running concurrently/simultaneously, this is not true as only one process can be executing at any one time on a single-core CPU, unless on a multi-core or similar technology. Processes are often called tasks in embedded operating systems. The function of the task or process is something that takes up time, as opposed to memory, which is something thatRead MoreScope Of Work For The Four Mile Run Watershed Management Program1308 Words   |  6 PagesScope of Work for the Four Mile Run Watershed Management Program Support Background The Four Mile Run watershed is one of the most heavily urbanized drainage basins in the Northern Virginia region. The 20 square mile watershed includes areas that lie in Arlington and Fairfax Counties and the cities of Alexandria and Falls Church. A significant part of the watershed is covered with impervious surface, which prevents the natural process of infiltration and causes a greatly increased surface water runoffRead MoreLevel 2 Skills Essay1302 Words   |  6 Pagesof Exceeds Expectations, Meets Expectations, or Does Not Meet Expectations. The Cognitive Dimension If I, Understanding: am able to maintain Employee Performance Notes and collect data from EWMS (Eligibility Workload Monitoring System) and PIMS (Program Integrity Monitoring System) then I am able to evaluate, determine, and indicate the level of performance for each criterion. Applying: In order to provide accurate information regards EBT Compliance, I developed an Excel spreadsheet to tally andRead MoreHuman Resource Functions at Apple Computers Inc: An Analysis1544 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Apple Human Resource: Apple Computer Inc. or Apple Inc. is a multinational corporation in the United States that develops and markets consumer electronics, personal computers, and computer software. The firm is widely recognized for several hardware products like the Macintosh brand of computers, the iPad, the iPhone, and the iPod. On the contrary, Apples software products include Mac OS X operating system, Final Cut Studio, the iTunes media browser, and a series of professional audio and film-industryRead MoreAdware1371 Words   |  6 Pagesssigment Define Key Terms. Adware | A software program that collects infor- mation about Internet usage and uses it to present targeted advertisements to users. Asset | Any item that has value to an organization or a person. Attack | An attempt to exploit a vulnerability of a computer or network component Backdoor | An undocumented and often unauthor- ized access method to a computer resource that bypasses normal access controls. Black-hat hacker | A computer attacker who tries to break IT security

Monday, May 18, 2020

Australian Criminal Law System - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2066 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Critical essay Tags: Justice Essay Did you like this example? Part 2: critical legal analysis: You must critically analyze and discuss the question. You must support each of your agreements with authority. If there is no case law to support your argument, you may use any academic or other literature or commentary that supports your argument. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Australian Criminal Law System" essay for you Create order Q4:The common law of Australia does not recognize that an accused on trial for a serious criminal offence has a right to the provision of counsel at public expense. Further, that as a matter of constitutional duty, the court cannot indefinitely adjourn a trial to force the provision of legal aid (Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292). Do you agree or disagree? Why? The defendant was a man named Olaf Dietrich who was arrested in Melbourne Airport with importing a lot of heroin. Dietrich was tried in the County Court of Victoria in 1988 for a trafficking offence under the Customs Act 1901 and certain less serious charges.[1] During the lengthy trial the accused had no legal representation.[2] Although he had applied to the Legal Aid Commission of Victoria for assistance, the commission rejected his request and said there was no public expense in court if you were an indigent accused. Finally, the judge made a decision that supported the defendant to have legal aid in order to making sure he got a fair trial. Dietrich v The Queen was an important case decided in the High Court of Australia in the year of 1992. It concerned the nature of the right to a fair trial, and under what circumstances indigent defendants should be provided with legal aid by the state. The case determined that although there is no absolute right for the accused to have public fund for the counsel in court by state, a judge should concern the request for an adjournment or stay when an accused has no representation. It is a significant case in criminal law as well as in constitutional law in Australia, since it is one of a number of cases which have found human rights in the Australian Constitution. The majority in the High Court decided that although there was no right at common law to have publicly provided legal representation, in some cases representation is appropriate to ensure a fair trial.[3] Although judges no longer have the power to appoint counsel for an accused, sin ce that function has been largely taken over by legal aid agencies, a trial judge should use their power to adjourn a case if it is in the interests of fairness that an accused have representation, which would encourage the legal aid agencies to provide counsel.[4] In my point of view, I do not agree with the first issue. I think though there is no provision of counsel at public expense, it is necessary for Australia common law to recognize a serious criminal offence having the right to gain a legal aid for the reason of a trial. Furthermore, though I am not for the first issue whereas I think the second issue is correct. It is reasonable for the court that not to indefinitely adjourns a trial to force the provision of legal aid. Since the defendant should have the right to gain legal aid at public expense though there is no provision for that in common law in Australia, some questions should be discussed at follows: (a) the right to a fair trial (b) Miscarriage of justice (c) the role for the international treaties in Australian common law. the right to a fair trial To receive a fair trial according to law for the defendant is not only a fundamental element of the common law but of criminal justice system as well.[5] The right is manifested in rules of law designed to regulate the trial.[6] Also, the jurisdiction of courts extends to a power to stay proceedings in order to avoid the criminal proceeding which will result in unfair trial.[7] The defendant claimed that the interest of justice require that an indigent accused who wishes to have legal representation should be paid at public expense because the central essence of the trial is to make sure the accused have the right to have his own counsel and the absence of representation for the defendant who cannot afford the legal representation means that the proceeding is unfair and the conviction should be quashed.[8] Since it is for a long time the legislation was enacted to provide that all accused will be permitted to be represented by counsel, that principle has been regarded as the basic prescript of the trial especially for the felony. Furthermore, the rule of the criminal system provides the securing justice for administration power to guarantee the fairness and particularly requires the contemporary values for Australia for reducing the possibility of the unfair proceedings especially for the felony charge. Australia legal system is a kind of adversary system which requires the justice of the criminals should be consistent with the fundamental virtue of the common law. That means that the judge in the court do not have more work but mainly rely on the lawyersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ intelligence which is unlike the inquisitorial system, it is the judgeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s duty to guide the proceeding in the court.[9] Thus to avoid the unfairness during the legal proceeding result from the unbalanced and in appropriate situation, I do think it may be a good thing for the trial judge to lend assistance to point the counsel for the accused.[10] Most of the accused do no t have the specific knowledge to support them during the court so that they need the professional lawyers for legal representing by using them sufficient and accurate intelligence. Although it is not inevitable for the want of counsel to lead the unfairness in the court,[11] it could increase the possibility to result in an unfair criminal trial.[12] Miscarriage of justice As we all know, the justice is include not only procedural justice but substantive justice as well though the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"justiceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ is hard to elaborate for a long time. Therefore, ensuring the justice process means a lot to the fair trial. It has been shown that in some cases the judges think the accused especially for the people with felony may be trialed unfairly if he failed to gain the defense counsel even though the judged were deemed to conduct in strict accordance with the law,[13] So it is vital for the accused to be represented by counsel in a proceeding of criminal trial.[14] If there is lack of legal representation, it will result in the proceedings for the accused to be dealt with not fairly and justly. It is in the best interests both of the accused and of the administration of justice that an accused be represented, especially when the he is under a serious charged offence.[15] At the commencement of the trial, the applicant had exhausted a ll avenues for legal assistance which means there was no other ways for him if the public expense were not provided. Due to the unsuccessful application for legal aid, no judicial attempt to list attributes of fair trial but every accused entitled to counsel. In this case, the failure of the trail judge to appoint counsel for the applicant was a miscarriage of justice and it is said that the Appeal Court usually determines miscarriage of justice. The importance of the international treaties in Australian law It is well established that unless a country incorporated the provision of an international treaty into its domestic law by statute, the provision will be in force in that country. Australia is a party to the international treaty named International Covenant on Civil and Political Right (the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"ICCPRà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢), however, it has not been in force now because although the Executive made a ratification. It is the Parliament that has the right to make and alter the law, not the Executive. Since there is no provision related to the human right in Australiaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s constitution, the right for legal representing seems not be included in the issue. Although we can find the evidence that in the ICCPR it contains that the indigent defendant can be represented by counsel at public expense,[16] no legislation in Australia has passed just the Executive signed it.[17] Although the ICCPR does not become a part of domestic law in Australia, the common law in Austr alia should follow the provision to the international treaty to develop a way which recognizes the existence and enforceability of rights and obligations regulated by the international instruments.[18] It is accepted that the fact that the convention has not been incorporated into Australian law does not mean that its ratification holds significance, the Australian law should regards the provision as a guidance to the common law and put something that in conformity but not in conflict with the established rules of international law. Besides, where the inherited common law is ambiguous and uncertain, Australian judges may look to an international treaty that Australia has ratified as an aid for explication.[19] In addition, the provisions of an international treaty to which Australia is a party that claims universal rights should used to help develop the common law system as well.[20] The court cannot indefinitely adjourn a trial to force the provision of legal aid. As the court do not control public purse strings, entitlement to legal aid dependent on government, not judiciary.[21] It means that the proceeding of trial is under the control of judicial power whereas the Executive is in charge of the public expense.[22] In fact, a trial judge will have discretion to stay or adjourn if the accused is too poor to afford the legal representation. It is noticeable that the judge should be in the favor of the accused under specific circumstances such as the lack of time or money shortage for him to have the counsel.[23] From my point of view, any decision made by the judges should conform the fundamental value of the common law, that is, justice and fair. Under such a circumstance, it is hard to say whether the trial judge should adjourn the proceeding or not for any decision he made would lead the case to unfairness. If the judge give the indefinitely stay in the court, it will bring the unfair trial. Therefore, the court cannot indefinitely adjour n a trial because it may occur to the executive government to provide the legal representation. To sum up, the judge should give the right to the accused due to the poverty in a reasonable time and never lead an indefinitely adjourn. Bibliography: Barton v The Queen (1980) 147 CLR 75 Blackstone, Williams and Sir, Commentaries, (N.Y. Banks Brothers, 1899) Bradley v Commonwealth (1973) 128 CLR 557 Bunning v Cross (1978) 141 CLR 554 Dietrich v The Queen, Australasian Legal Information Institute, 25 March 2009 Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292 International Covenant on Civil and Political Right, 16 December 1966, UNTS (entered into force 23 March 1976) Jago v District (1989) 168 CLR 23 Justice System in Western Australia, Consultation Drafts, 1992 Kinley, David, Human rights in Australian law: principles, practice and potential(Federation Press, 1998) Law Reform Commision of Western Australia, Review of the Criminal and Civil Paul, Ames, à ¢Ã¢ ‚ ¬Ã‹Å"Without Counsel: Dietrich v the Queenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (1992) 4 (Bond Law Review, 235-241) Mclnnis v The Queen (1979) 143 CLR, 575 Powell v Alabama (1932) 287 US; Gideon v Wainwright (1963) 372 US R v Corak (1982) 30 SASR 409; Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292 Reg v Sang [1980] AC 402 The State (Healy) v Donoghue [1976] IR [1] Dietrich v The Queen, Australasian Legal Information Institute, 25 March 2009. [2] Kinley, David, Human rights in Australian law: principles, practice and potential. (Federation Press, 1st, 1998). [3] Paul Ames, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Without Counsel: Dietrich v the Queenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (1992) 4 (Bond Law Review, 235-241) . [4] Ibid. [5] See, eg, Jago v District (1989) 168 CLR 23; Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292. [6] Bunning v Cross (1978) 141 CLR 554; Reg v Sang [1980] AC 402. [7] Barton v The Queen (1980) 147 CLR 75 at pp 95-96. [8] Dietrich v The Queen, (1992) 177 CLR 292. [9] Law Reform Commision of Western Australia, Review of the Criminal and Civil Justice System in Western Australia, Consultation Drafts, 1992. [10] See, generally, Powell v Alabama (1932) 287 US; Gideon v Wainwright (1963) 372 US; The State (Healy) v Donoghue [1976] IR. [11] See Barton v R (1980) 147 CLR 75. [12] Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292. [13] See R v Corak (1982) 30 SASR 409; Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292. [14] See, for example, Powell v Alabama (1932) 287 US 45. [15] Mclnnis v The Queen (1979) 143 CLR, 575 at 579. [16] International Covenant on Civil and Political Right, 16 December 1966, UNTS (entered into force 23 March 1976). [17] Bradley v Commonwealth (1973) 128 CLR 557. [18] Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292. [19] Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292. [20] Bradley v Commonwealth (1973) 128 CLR 557. [21] Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292. [22] Ibid. [23] Blackstone, Williams and Sir, Commentaries, (N.Y. Banks Brothers, 3rd ed, 1899) 49-50.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Principles in Nursing Ethics - 2973 Words

Graduate School of Health Science, Management and Pedagogy Southwestern University MAN 503- Nursing Legal Issues, Ethical Concerns And Trends in Practice Principles in Nursing Ethics Ethics - moral duty - Refers to a standard to examine and understand moral life. - Ethical theories, principles and codes of conduct serve as guides of human conduct provided by ethical systems. - Making choices that are best for the individual or society at certain times and in particular situations and then evaluating such choices and outcomes. Morals - Are specific ways of behavior or of accomplishing ethical practices Professional Ethics - Is a branch of moral science concerned with the obligations that a member of†¦show more content†¦- For Christians, these rules are founding the Ten Commandments. - Differences in religion, however, pose problems such as what to do when the decision would conflict with one’s religious beliefs. C. Universal Principles of Biomedical Ethics - In the health care delivery, basic ethical principles assist the health professionals to determine right or wrong in regard to value issues involving the pursuit of health, alleviation of suffering, and assisting patients towards peaceful death. These are: Autonomy o It involves self- determination and freedom to choose and implement one’s decision, free form deceit, duress, constraint or coercion. o Informed consent ââ€" ª Information provided by the patient and his family is within their level of understanding that they may evaluate the risks and other options open to them. ââ€" ª This includes allowing the patient to refuse treatment if he so decides; ââ€" ª Disclosure of his ailment, prognosis, mode of treatment, and maintaining confidentiality. ââ€" ª The person making the decision must be deemed competent: he must have the intellectual capacity to make a rational decision, must be of legal age that the decision is of his own free will and he is not coerced or put under duress to do so. Veracity o To maximize the efficiency of the health care, the patient and the health care providers are bound to tell theShow MoreRelatedNursing Ethics : The Four Biomedical Principles Of Nursing1550 Words   |  7 PagesIn this essay I will be discussing and exploring the four biomedical principles of nursing which refer to: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Specifically looking at autonomy I will further discuss and explain why I have chosen this principle, its value to good nursing practice and demonstrate its relation to mental health nursing, specifically dementia. Following this I will adhere to the conflicts that may impede its implementation in practice with autonomy, address the legal andRead MoreNursing Code Of Ethics And Relevant Ethical Principles1523 Words   |  7 PagesNursing Code of Ethics and Relevant Ethical Principles The International Council of Nurses (ICN) Code of Ethics for Nurses has four principal elements that shape the standards of ethical conduct within the nursing profession. These elements include the people nurses take care of and come into contact with, the practice they take part in, the profession they belong to, and the co-workers they work with (International Council of Nurses, 2012). Within these elements there are three standards nursesRead MoreNursing Code of Ethics Essay1052 Words   |  5 PagesNursing Code of Ethics Introduction Butts and Rich (1-26) point out that effective nursing requires both broad knowledge and a set of well developed abilities and skills. The required tasks, are many and varied and in order to do them properly, care must be taken to respect each patients rights and sensitivities. This is why, according to the authors, nursing care must be guided by a code of ethics. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and discussion of the Code of EthicsRead MoreNursing Ethic Involving Informatics : Daniel O Brien Essay1183 Words   |  5 Pages Nursing Ethic Involving Informatics Daniel O’Brien University of Louisiana Lafayette Author Note Correspondence regarding this paper should be addressed to Daniel M. O’Brien, Baton Rouge, LA, 70817. E-mail: Abstract Ethics is part of the decision making process that a nurse uses and is a foundation of nursing. Nursing needs ethical standards to rely on in order to provide quality care for patients and to keep them from harm while respecting their wishes (da SilvaRead MoreThe Importance Of Acting Ethically When Working As A Nurse1318 Words   |  6 Pagesimportance of acting ethically when working as a nurse. Introduction: Ethics is an essential aspect of health care practice and those working in the nursing profession are often subject to frequent ethical dilemmas. It is essential for all nurses to be aware of the importance of ethics in health care and to practice within the ethico-legal parameters that govern the profession. However, while this is relatively easy in theory, ethics is not a black and white subject and often one’s culture, upbringingRead MoreNursing Philosophy and Code of Ethics Essay872 Words   |  4 Pagesadequate nursing care that was in the scope of their religion. One has also encountered an experience with a nurse from a different religious background. This particular nurse’s religion had a prayer ritual that required her to pray at different times throughout the day. One respected that nurse and watched over her patients while she was away. As a nurse, one must be respectful and accommodating to another. One’s philosophical forces go hand-in-hand with th eir philosophy of practice. Ethics and valuesRead MoreEthical Principles Of Nursing Practice974 Words   |  4 Pages When ethics in nursing in respect to decision making is looked upon, various key areas are taken into consideration. These key areas include the nursing values, the standards, subject ethical principles and finally the fundamental beliefs in nursing. When a reflection is made on the on the key mentioned areas, it is presumed that each of them is mainly aimed at protecting human dignity and restoring respect to patients (Bush 2007). Ethical values in nursing When looking at nursing values in regardRead MoreInternational Nursing Ethics1550 Words   |  6 Pageslocal nursing home. At the end of the first week he was employed a colleague invited him to attend afternoon tea with a group of nursing colleagues. At the gathering they all brought out their mobile phones and shared photos they had taken of the elderly residents genitals during the week. There was a competition to guess who the genitals belonged to. Leon was invited to join this group and participate in the photo activity and competition. The scenario flagrantly voids international nursing ethicsRead MoreA Careful and Meaningful Consideration of my Journey in Nursing Ethics1614 Words   |  7 PagesSystem, the patient, and the Healthcare provider. For a safe and effective nursing practice, a proper knowledge and understanding of nursing code of ethics, the definitions, concepts and principles of all stakeholders need to be recognized. My journey in Nursing Ethics has provided me with an opportunity to think over some of my life and clinical practice situations and relating whatever has been learnt to future nursing practices. Critical reflection analysis has helped me to identify some practiceRead MoreImportance of Ethical Theory in Nursing1322 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The concept of ethical nursing and culturally competent care are becoming more and more important in the contemporary nursing practice (Smith Godfrey,2002).Despite their general appreciation in nursing practice, challenges and dilemma often clouds their application in a world which is continually being marked with a culturally diverse and demanding population. In this paper we present a critical review of ethics and cultural competence in professional nursing practice with a clear focus on

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Consequences for Sustaining a Brain Injury Essay - 1382 Words

Consequences for Sustaining a Brain Injury Abstract The consequences for sustaining brain injury of any magnitude can have a life changing effect on the individual and the family. Whether the person is an adult or a child their life changes drastically. There are various types of brain injuries; the one that is in detail in this paper is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) of any degree. The obstacles a person has to overcome to become rehabilitated are numerous, tedious, and frustrating. The expenses that a person or family have to pay for rehabilitation are tremendous, and many cannot afford the treatments. Brain Injury Whether an adult or a child, suffers from brain injury of any degree, they have to overcome†¦show more content†¦2) Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) results from damage to the brain caused by strokes, tumors, hypoxia, toxins, degenerative diseases, near drowning and/or other conditions not necessarily, caused by external forces. 3) Concussion results from a quick blow to the head by an external force. Every 21 seconds, one person in the U.S. sustains a brain injury (NIH 9-10). That is an amazing number, which means that over 4,000 people in the U.S. sustain a brain injury per day. TBI has numerous complications and is not limited to a certain amount of symptoms. This makes it hard for doctors to say well what you see is what you have to deal with. TBI affects an individual neurologically, which hinders many day-to-day human functions. A person may not be as likely to show all of the symptoms at once. TBI patients are vulnerable to movement disorders, seizures , headaches, visual deficits, sleep disorders, and various no neurological problems. The process of rehabilitation is taxing on the individual suffering from TBI and the patient’s family. Many types of adult rehabilitation are used. 1) Restorative training focuses on improving a specific cognitive function, 2) compensatory training focuses on adapting to the presence of a cognitive deficit, 3) single strategy focuses on a computer assisted cognitive training, 4) integrated or interdisciplinary approach. Other elements usedShow MoreRelatedNegative Effects Of Concussions In Sports1683 Words   |  7 PagesSometimes â€Å"sports-related concussions often result in mental and physical symptoms [ e.g., inability to concentrate, forgetfulness, headache, fatigue, dizziness†] (Concussions in). Obviously none of these symptoms are pleasant. A concussion rattles the brain so that it makes life harder for the individual that suffered this horrible trauma. In the process of recovering from one, everything should occur with great caution. Concussions are becoming more and more common and â€Å"CDC reports show that the amountRead MoreThe Consequences Of A Concussion1241 Words   |  5 PagesEducation The Consequences of a Concussion in High School Almost everyone who has played on a sports team at some point in their life can say they sustained an injury at one point or another. Sometimes these injuries are completely unpreventable and the only thing that can be done is being more aware of that certain injury. Concussions in high school sports is a prime example. This because the potential negative effects of a concussion can be life altering. The effects of sustaining a concussionRead MoreConcussions Or Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries958 Words   |  4 Pagestraumatic brain injuries (MTBI) are the most common forms of traumatic brain injury. There are between 1.6 and 3.8 million concussions a year that occur due to sports and recreation accidents alone (CDC). Mild concussions and MTBIs were once thought to be insignificant in terms of consequences. However, there now is significant evidence that neurological even with what is thought to be a mild injury, physiological, and cognitive changes can occur. Individuals sustaining m ild brain injuries often reportRead MoreInformative Speech : Children Football Safety Essay1669 Words   |  7 Pagestold Allen Barra in the interview â€Å"There can be serious disruption when those kids who are still developing are hurt. You can die from other sports, but those kind of injuries are freak occurrences.† Those exact words is what is transpiring in our youth football today. More and more youth football players are sustaining injuries. {Source} According to, a trusted sports website for parents, in the article named, Youth Football Concussion Study Criticizing Limits On Contact PracticesRead MorePersuasive Speech On Concussions1276 Words   |  6 PagesInjuries can be caused through playing sports and getting in accidents at any moment of time. Soccer is known as a contact sport from headers to player-player contact. Any type of contact while playing soccer the risk of injuries depend on how hard the compact is. Injuries from playing soccer that are common are concussions, they are a major factor that can cause brain-trauma. Soccer isn’t the only sport with the risk of concussions, any sport with any physical contact has a risk of concussions,Read MoreSports Concussions And Its Effects2206 Words   |  9 Pagessport’s highest profile players, were found to have several mental illnesses and diseases, that have been attributed to head injuries sustained while they were playing their sports. The bi ggest and most predominant of these injuries is concussions. They can cause not only immediate issues, but also a lifetime of health problems (Smith, 2009). Sports related concussions lead to brain deterioration, which leads to long lasting effects throughout life. What is a Concussion? Defined by Merriam Webster.comRead MoreSports Concussions And Its Effects Essay2330 Words   |  10 Pagessport’s highest profile players, were found to have several mental illnesses and diseases, that have been attributed to head injuries sustained while they were playing their sports. 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New measures to ensure the safety and future health of athletes like new and improved safety gear, and minor tweaks to rules that won’t transform the sport, but it will help prevent injuries and maintain the sportRead MoreEffects Of Sports Essay1577 Words   |  7 Pagesas weight, cardiorespiratory health, muscle and bones, and reduced risk of cancer. If you’re involved in a sport, does it have a positive or negative effect on you? Sports can leave a harmful effect on your body depending on what sport you play. Injuries during sports can be damaging to your life whenever youre an adult or even when you ’re a child. Some sports like football, soccer, and basketball can be harmful to your body. Based on the cost of sports, playing is not worth it. Also playing a sportRead MoreConcussions On High School Football1208 Words   |  5 Pageshappened (Gregory 34). Chad collapsed, and when the medical trainers got to him his eyes were closed and he was unresponsive (Gregory 34). They rushed him to the hospital where he was diagnosed with severe brain trauma (Gregory 34). Five days later Chad passed away from complications from severe brain trauma (Gregory 34). On fall Friday nights everywhere, high schools are buzzing for one thing: football. The players have practiced all week and are excited to get on the field. Students, parents, and

Frankenstein by Mary Shelly Free Essays

string(101) " over him as he ‘beheld the figure of a man†¦ advancing towards me with superhuman speed\." In their chapter on ghosts in literature, Bennett and Royle propose that nineteenth century literature altered the widespread understanding of ghosts. The ghost now ‘move[d] into one’s head. The ghost is internalised: it becomes a psychological symptom, and no longer a thing that goes bump in the night†¦ ‘ (p. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein by Mary Shelly or any similar topic only for you Order Now 133). Frankenstein by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley certainly provides evidence for this argument that nineteenth century Gothic literature became more concerned with the haunted consciousness than the haunted house (Byron 2004: Stirling University). The tale like all Gothic works is concerned with the uncanny, and if we believed the popular representation of Frankenstein, we could be fooled into thinking that it is simply about a terrifying, grotesque monster. However, is this actually what Shelley’s novel is about? By paying particular attention to chapter two in volume two of Frankenstein, and using Bennett and Royle’s chapter on ghosts, I will consider to what extent Frankenstein can be described as a ghost story. Before we start to look at Frankenstein itself, we should first look at the context in which it was written. As is well known, Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein when travelling in Geneva with her husband Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord Byron. In her preface to Frankenstein, Shelley tells the reader that ‘in the evenings we crowded around a blazing wood fire, and, occasionally amused ourselves with some German stories of ghosts†¦ ‘ She goes on to describe how ‘these tales excited us in a playful desire of imitation. [Percy Shelley, Lord Byron]†¦ and myself agreed to write each a story, founded on some supernatural occurrence’ (Norton Anthology, p. 908). So before we have even read her tale, we know that she initially intended to write it as some form of ghost story. Did Shelley achieve her goal? Chapter two in volume two of Frankenstein does seem to provide evidence to the presence of the theme of the supernatural. This is the chapter in which Victor and his creature are reunited after Victor first ran away after bringing the creature to life because he was terrified by its horrific appearance. Prior to this, our only impression of the creature was very much a mysterious one; we knew him only by Victor’s description of his hideous and deformed appearance. Now we get to ‘meet’ him for ourselves, and our first impression may be that of shock; not because of his appearance (as of course we never really know what the creature looks like) but due to the eloquence with which he speaks. As Sparknotes summarise, ‘The monster’s eloquent narration of events†¦ reveals his remarkable sensitivity and benevolence. ‘ The creature tells Victor of the pain and rejection he has had to suffer with great emotion; ‘All men hate the wretched; how then must I be hated, who am miserable beyond all living things! (Norton Anthology, p. 960). His expressive words show us that the creature is not a purely evil being, as Victor would have had us believe. The creature’s appearance has an otherworldly attribute, simply because we never know and never will know what he actually looks like; we can only rely on Victor’s and Walton’s descriptions which may be biased, and so his appearance remains a secret. Nicholas Abraham ventures that ‘ghosts have to do with unspeakable secrets’ (Bennett and Royle, p. 134). As we know, Frankenstein felt his secret of creating life was unspeakable to his family and friends – the only person he recounts his tale to is Walton (that the reader knows of anyway). On the other hand, Victor never constantly reiterates the creature’s horrific appearance, and pays much less attention to the humane, sensitive side of the creature. This turns out to be a fatal and tragic mistake, as the creature’s human characteristics turn out to be the most important; it is his humane side that becomes blackened by rejection of society, and causes the creature to kill Victor’s family and friends and eventually, Victor himself. The way in which the creature appears before Victor in this chapter is also extremely eerie. He ‘bound[s] over the crevices in the ice’ as an answer to Victor’s call to the spirits. Victor pleads with them ‘Wandering spirits, if indeed ye wander, and do not rest in your narrow beds, allow me this faint happiness, or take me, as your companion, away from the joys of life’ (Norton Anthology, p. 959). The fact that the creature’s arrival comes when Victor is pleading for someone to carry him away from his worries by means of death could foreshadow who Victor’s ‘saviour’ will be. The creature also has a distinguishable effect on Victor when the two are reunited; he becomes the catalyst to cause Victor to become haunted only by his sheer animal hatred of the creature. As the creature approaches Victor, Victor describes how ‘anger and hatred had at first deprived me of utterance, and I recovered only to overwhelm him with words expressive of furious detestation and contempt’ (Norton Anthology, p. 959). The creature has a ghostlike effect on Victor, as he causes him to become paralysed, not by fear however, but by his pure loathing for him. If we take this further, we could even venture to say that from the creature’s animation right until Victor’s death, the creature ‘initiates a haunting theme that persists throughout the novel-the sense that the monster is inescapable, ever present, liable to appear at any moment and wreak havoc’ (Sparknotes). Victor constantly lives in fear from the appearance of the creature, and also fears that he will kill all his family and friends. The way in which Frankenstein is narrated also carries on this haunting theme. It is told through a series of multiple narratives, as if Shelley was trying to recreate the way in which scary stories are passed down through generations, and perhaps also how they change over time. A noteworthy example of the creature’s haunting effect on Victor comes when the two are reunited on the glacier. Victor describes with horror the feeling that came over him as he ‘beheld the figure of a man†¦ advancing towards me with superhuman speed. You read "Frankenstein by Mary Shelly" in category "Papers" ‘ He tells the reader that ‘I felt a faintness seize me; but I was quickly restored by the cold gale of the mountains. I perceived as the shape came nearer, (sight tremendous and abhorred! that it was the wretch whom I had created. I trembled with rage and horror†¦ ‘ (Norton Anthology, p. 959). Victor must have, on some level, expected a reunion with his creature at some point; he knew he could only run from him for so long. However, his guilt has haunted him from the creature’s creation, and so it could be that the creature is simply the embodiment of all of Victor’s guilt and remorse for acting like God. This could explain why he is overwhelmed with horror – not by the creature’s appearance, but because now he has to face his guilt head on, which he has attempted to put out of his mind for so long. We should also observe that Victor says he was ‘restored by the cold gale of the mountains’ (Norton Anthology, p. 959) when he feels faint. This is the chapter in which the theme of sublime nature becomes utterly important in regard to understanding Victor Frankenstein, his creature and their remarkable relationship (Sparknotes). The majestic scenery of nature affects Victor’s moods, has the power to move him and remind him of good times and also bad times. In a striking example, he goes so far as to say that ‘these sublime and magnificent scenes afforded me the greatest consolation that I was capable of receiving’ (Norton Anthology, p. 58). This comment may show that Victor takes greater comfort in God’s creation, that is, nature, than his own family, to whom he has not told his awful secret, and thus a barrier has been created. Victor has chosen instead to isolate himself and take comfort from the inanimate and almost haunting scenes around him. The changing weather can also arouse in Victor his feelings of despondency. He remarks ‘†¦ the rain poured down in torrents, and thick mists hid the summits of the mountains. I rose early, but felt unusually melancholy. The rain depressed me; my old feelings recurred, and I was miserable’ (Norton Anthology, p. 58). This could reveal that Victor’s moods are ruled by some absent yet ever-present being – perhaps God. God is notable primarily by his distinct absence in the novel (Byron 2004: Stirling University). However, the way that Victor does not appear to have the power to control his own feelings could show us that he has lost some of his own life and vitality in creating the creature, and now leaves it up to the changing nature and weather to control his emotions. The place where Victor and his creature meet is also significant, as it first introduces the idea of the creature being Victor’s doppelganger. The fact that they both meet at a rather random scene of beauty rather than an actual place could show that they are both isolate creatures, albeit that Victor is isolated because he chooses to be, and the creature because he has to hide from human eyes. The language that Victor uses indicates to the reader that he would prefer to be alone with his secret in nature than with other people. He uses phrases such as ‘solitary grandeur’ and ‘terrifically desolate’ (Norton Anthology, p. 958) to describe the scenes around him, and perhaps also his state of mind. The creature, like Victor, is affected by beautiful nature around him, and feels that ‘the desert mountains and dreary glaciers are my refuge,’ (Norton Anthology, p. 960) which also reflects how Victor feels. The creature and Victor are both so at home in nature, which could stress that there is more to this relationship than meets the eye; are these two really so different? Many modern critics believe that the creature is Victor’s doppelganger. In earlier Gothic literature, evil was generally located in an external source, but Frankenstein sees a turn inwards to a focus on the evil within ourselves (Byron 2004: Stirling University). Bennett and Royle propose that ‘conflicting senses of the word ‘ghost’ suggest ghosts are both exterior and central to our sense of the human’ (p. 132). The creature in Frankenstein is the embodiment of this confusion. While he is physically exterior, he also pervades Victor’s consciousness. It has to be remembered that it was Victor who created the creature, and so perhaps the creature is Victor’s doppelganger, as he is ‘the embodiment of an internal and irreparable division in the human psyche’ (Byron 2004: Stirling University). It is possible to see that the gaps between Frankenstein and his creature are not as wide as we may have initially believed. However, while I do believe that Frankenstein is a ghost story to a very large extent, I do not think one could describe the tale of Frankenstein without, at some point, mentioning the genre of science fiction. While at once being Gothic and having the style of the German ghost stories that Shelley and her companions were reading on their travels, the story would have much less of an impact if it were not for the role that science plays in the book. Victor becomes obsessed by the secret of life in the book, and it is he who creates the ‘ghost’ in the story, so it is not simply a case of the bogey man in Frankenstein. The creature challenges our way of thinking about ghosts because he was brought to life made of dead parts, as if life can spring from death with the use of science. So, while I would argue that the tale is most definitely a ghost story, I do not think that Frankenstein would have become such a literary classic if Shelly had not chosen to use the role of science to show us what can happen if we mere mortals meddle too much with God’s prerogative. How to cite Frankenstein by Mary Shelly, Papers

Airline Alliances free essay sample

Liberalisation of the Airline Market now allows carriers to engage in alliances to form more powerful synergy’s and capture a larger share of the market. Since the introduction of The Airline Deregulation Act in 1978 in North America and similar acts worldwide the aviation industry has become one of the fastest growing industries. The main objective of this was to allow the market place to influence the development of airlines. The main development from this was that airlines find it more beneficial if they join alliances. In this report I will discuss why airlines engage in alliances, identify the strategic benefits of alliances and assess their effectiveness. Why airlines engage in alliances: The primary reason why airlines form strategic alliances is to expand their market and operations without going through the costly process of adding new aircraft or extra employees. This action allows an airline to impose itself amongst a new market quickly and expand its likelihood of new revenue streams under the guidance of a party already well established in that market (the strategic partner). We will write a custom essay sample on Airline Alliances or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Alliances also offer a greater network of flights to the consumer. The more airlines in an alliances means that there are likely to be more landing slots and facilities’ available globally to offer a more comprehensive network of flights to the customer. Finally alliances give the opportunity to the customer to build up loyalty through transferable air miles arrangements. Another reason why airlines engage in alliances is because this kind of agreement carries uncertainties that are not manageable through contractual agreements. It allows Airlines an opportunity to share knowledge, costs and risks. Strategic Benefits of alliances: The strategic benefits of Airline Alliances are plentiful and can be seen by the number of airlines currently involved in Airline Alliances. The main strategic benefit of Airline Alliances is that carriers can achieve lower costs through economies of scale. Partner airlines in an alliance can share costs therefore increasing profits considerably. By pooling resources alliances can reduce unit costs and achieve greater cost efficiencies through more efficient utilisation of resources such as sharing landing slots, maintenance teams, IT systems and labour. Airlines also have the opportunity of engaging in joint purchasing agreements and make considerable savings. When we look at the Star Alliance which was founded in 1997 we see that they have made considerable savings from joint purchasing agreements. Earlier this year The Star Alliance leveraged its purchasing power with the procurement of new economy class seats. As well as reducing the cost of seat ownership the airline will also benefit of reduced future fuel costs due to the seats being made of lighter materials. The demand side benefits of Strategic Alliances include accessing new markets through availing of new landing slots. Landing slots are a big plus from strategic alliances. Currently Virgin Airways are looking for landing slots at London’s main airports to fly to destinations in Asia including Bangalore. Through the potential prospect of joining the Alliance Sir Richard Branson hopes to secure these slots. Alliances enable airlines to offer a more seamless network of flights to customers due to their collaborative efforts. Alliances also have the option to use code sharing which enables consumers to book space on the same flights through multiple airlines websites. Effectiveness of alliances: The effectiveness of strategic alliances can be seen in the numbers. In 2011 the Star Alliance saved $27million from joint purchasing arrangements associated with fuel logistics. Also just last week CEO of Virgin Atlantic Richard Branson announced that his airline could yet be in line to join one of the main Airline Alliances. Having previously spoken strongly against alliances, Branson is now set to join one of these long standing alliances which is clear indicator how effective they are. Another interesting fact is that the Star Alliance market share is 28% of the global market which is more than the combined market share of all the global airlines that are not part of an alliance. This shows that in order to gain access to a majority of the market you need to be part of an alliance.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Train Collide At Black Forest In Adelaide â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Train Collide At Black Forest In Adelaide? Answer: Introducation In, Australia there has been many cases of train crash, which is mainly occurring because of train collision on the same tract, due to technical faults trains are getting distracted, obstructions in the tract or due to landslides. Rail Industry safety and Standard board in Australia is found developing its dense model of safety risk so that they can meet the needs of this industry. However, train collisions mainly take place due to safety breaches by the drivers. Here, safety breach is mainly the violation or break of the safety rules or regulations. Therefore, in this essay the discussion is done based on a particular train crash in Australia that has taken place due to safety breaches and what policies and practices the government came up with after this incident. The chosen rail crash is the Car and train collides which took place at Black Forest in Adelaide on 6 September 2017. This train crash took place at around 3.30pm on 6 September, Wednesday at the Emerson Railway crossing. The accident took place because a car got fixed under the boom gates in a busy intersection. However, the accident took place when a woman who was driving a Mercedes actually was stuck in a boom gate at the busy intersection. She was so scared watching the train heading towards her that she started panicking. Thus, she persisted moving forward through the rail crossing when the train hit the car. Sources have stated that the train was heard sounding its horn several times before it strike its brakes and banging into the car. This woman was taken to the hospital with serious injury to her abdominal area (Read, Salmon Lenn, 2013). It is very clear that safety breaches are the real reason contributing to this train crash. Firstly, the safety violation occurred when the car driver did not pay any attention to the flashing red light at the level crossing. If she would have paid the attention then definitely before getting stucked she would have known that train is approaching. The train driver has been found giving horn several of the time but until then the situation was out of control (Naweed, 2013). This proves that the Mercedes driver was not paying full attention while driving and crossing the busy intersection. Lastly, the car driver should not have continued to go forward through the railway crossing rather she should have immediately drive the car back, off the track or she should have get out of the car other than panicking. However, here the train driver strikes its brake but it is not possible for him to stop the train and so it banged the car. It has been reported that the boom gate was inspected just an hour before the accident took place. This proves that no one must risk and try to push their luck in these busy crossings (Young et al., 2015). It is always important to be extra conscious when heading towards the railway crossing and the drivers should have a habit of stopping; viewing and listening to any kind of signals by the train and so full control of the drivers are very much needed (Schmig Metz, 2013). Thus, the Australian government has been very conscious about the safety measures related to railway accidents. The rail safety law was the first to be enacted in the South Australia and each of its states and territories has moved a law defining that the Rail Safety national law is the safety law of that particular state which is south Australian. It however, initiates the ONRSR as a body who is responsible for the safety regulation of railways in that particular state or the territory (King, 2016). However, after these accidents the government has increased the penalties as well as the consciousness of the running railway crossing. The government is expending about $1 million dollar to establish boom gates at the busy junctions of the level crossings. Australian government thinks that boom gates are the best option for any busy level crossing (Dobson, 2016). Railway accidents at the level crossings in Australia are an important cause of worry for the both the authorities of rail and road. However, due to governmental safety policies and regulations recently railway crashes as fallen (Rudin-Brown et al., 2012). However, with the present improvement in railways safety at the level crossing in Australia has become the urgent priority for this area. The biggest drawback however is that there has been sizeable recognition concerning the significance of the human factor nearing to the safety of level crossing. There have been little or no attempts made by the authorities to scientifically advance and measure the success of the road safety educational involvements. Thus, there is still an important need for the progressing road safety educational involvements to enhance present risk management output at the railway level crossings (Salmon et al., 2017). There are still many requirements for improving the safety as the rail safety experts suggests. However, there has been installation of boom gates at each level crossing and the government is still working to upgrade level crossings all over Australia. Apart from focusing only in the level crossings, Australian government has updated the warning signals, which are now automated (Evans, 2013). Along with the railway safety measures, the Australian government has also reduced the speed limits at the level crossing. Lastly, it had increased the penalties and punishments for those who will be caught for violating safety measures. As these policies and regulations have been started to be implemented thus it is seen that there has been less number of accidents as compared to the previous years (Tombs Whyte, 2013). To conclude this report, it can be said that due to the increasing train crashes in Australia recently their government became conscious and have started taking measures. The Car and train collision that took place at Black Forest in Adelaide on 6 September 2017 at Emerson Railway crossing where the car driver was stuck in the boom gates. It was clear that safety breaches contributed for this accident. The car driver was inattentive and so she was unable to perceive the flashing red light. Thus, after this the government became stricter with the safety rules at the boom gates, raising the penalties and punishments for violating those rules. References Dobson, L. (2016). Dumper derailment investigation and development of custom check rail. Evans, A. W. (2013). The economics of railway safety.Research in transportation economics,43(1), 137-147. Doi: King, M. A. (2016). Differential safety liability of road and rail. Naweed, A. (2013). Psychological factors for driver distraction and inattention in the Australian and New Zealand rail industry.Accident Analysis Prevention,60, 193-204.Doi: Read, G. J., Salmon, P. M., Lenn, M. G. (2013). Sounding the warning bells: The need for a systems approach to understanding behaviour at rail level crossings.Applied ergonomics,44(5), 764-774.Doi: Rudin-Brown, C. M., Lenn, M. G., Edquist, J., Navarro, J. (2012). Effectiveness of traffic light vs. boom barrier controls at roadrail level crossings: A simulator study.Accident Analysis Prevention,45, 187-194. Doi: Salmon, P. M., McClure, R., Stanton, N. A. (2012). Road transport in drift? Applying contemporary systems thinking to road safety.Safety science,50(9), 1829-1838. Doi: Salmon, P. M., Walker, G. H., M. Read, G. J., Goode, N., Stanton, N. A. (2017). Fitting methods to paradigms: are ergonomics methods fit for systems thinking?.Ergonomics,60(2), 194-205. Doi: Schmig, N., Metz, B. (2013). Three levels of situation awareness in driving with secondary tasks.Safety science,56, 44-51. Doi: Tombs, S., Whyte, D. (2013). Transcending the deregulation debate? Regulation, risk, and the enforcement of health and safety law in the UK.Regulation Governance,7(1), 61-79. Doi: Young, K. L., Lenn, M. G., Beanland, V., Salmon, P. M., Stanton, N. A. (2015). Where do novice and experienced drivers direct their attention on approach to urban rail level crossings?.Accident Analysis Prevention,77, 1-11. Doi: